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Cut, Carved, and Cleared: When Big Forests Go

Cut, Carved, and Cleared: When Big Forests Go

How the largest excision in two decades transformed the landscape, economy, and community

Producer/writer: YH Law; Editor: SL Wong

Produced in collaboration with the Rainforest Investigations Network at the Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting.

Published: 21 September 2021

(Forest cleared for oil palm in Jemaluang, Johor | Video by IMR Kreatif)

Cut, carved, and cleared: When Big Forests Go

How the largest excision in two decades transformed the environment, economy, and community

Producer/writer: YH Law
Editor: SL Wong

Produced in collaboration with the Rainforest Investigations Network at the Pulitzer Center for Crisis Reporting

Published: 21 September 2021


(Forest cleared for oil palm plantation in Jemaluang, Johor | Video by IMR Kreatif)

The Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forest reserves once blanketed the northeastern coast of Johor. Side by side, the reserves stretched 25 km long and 11 km wide. This year, the Jemaluang reserve would have been 98 years old, and Tenggaroh 70.

But six years ago, in December 2014, both forest reserves were excised, or degazetted, by the Johor state government. At 15,011 hectares, this is the largest one-time excision of forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia since 2000.

The 2014 excision followed an earlier excision two years ago of 2,619 ha from Tenggaroh. This means that Jemaluang and Tenggaroh had lost a total of 17,630 ha of forest reserves.

Macaranga uses 17,511 ha as the total area of Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forest reserves before excision began in 2012.

But we note that there is discrepancy between the area of Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forest reserves reported in the annual reports of the Johor state forestry department and the Johor state gazettes.

Forestry Department annual report numbers

Jemaluang, 2012: 5,208.85 ha

Tenggaroh, 2012: 12,302.29 ha

Total in 2012 = 17,511.14 ha 

State gazette excision numbers

Jemaluang, 2014: excised 8,094 ha

Tenggaroh, 2014: excised 6,917 ha

Total excised in 2014 = 15,011 ha

State gazette numbers suggest that about 2,500 ha remain in the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh reserves.

But these reserves weren’t listed in annual reports after 2014, which meant both reserves were completely excised in 2014. There was no subsequent addition to these reserves.

Stranger still, the state gazette published an excision of 83 ha from the Tenggaroh forest reserve on 18 March 2021.

But the Tenggaroh reserve should not have existed after it was delisted from the forestry annual reports in 2015.

The Johor state forestry department did not respond to questions. 

Some of the land was taken into private ownership. An undisclosed size is owned by the monarch of the state, Sultan Ibrahim Sultan Iskandar.

About 21% of the forests has been cleared for oil palm estates and a gold mine – all on land owned by Sultan Ibrahim.

Last year, Macaranga featured one of these forests – Jemaluang – in our Forest Files stories to illustrate how top-down decisions to excise and clear forest reserves could hurt the interests of local communities.

Jemaluang residents had been suffering economically from roaming elephants living in the adjacent forests, parts of which had been cleared. They had hoped that the government would rein in deforestation.

But a year since our visit, more of this forest and the adjacent Tenggaroh forest – is expected to go. There are at least three proposed projects to convert another 24% of the forests into plantations and mines.

One by one, these projects will carve up and clear one of the last remaining intact coastal rainforests in Peninsular Malaysia. What has been the impact, and if there were gains, who has reaped them?

A century of reserves transformed

The Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forest reserves were gazetted by the Johor state government on 1 October 1923 and 8 November 1951, respectively. 

The reserves were no longer listed in the Johor Forestry Department annual reports for 2015​​–2019, which indicates they were completely excised by 2014. 

A scanned copy of the gazette notice in 1923 that established the Jemaluang forest reserve, then called Jembaluang. (Courtesy of Sinar Project)

A few years later, the forest reserves were much transformed as developers worked on land belonging to Sultan Ibrahim. (See Map below)

In November 2016, loggers first began with trees in the north. Satellite images show that the parcel of 2,190.49 ha (PTD 1814) was completely cleared by December 2018 and planted with oil palm.

The developer is AA Sawit Sdn Bhd, a company 51%-owned by Sultan Ibrahim, with his son Tunku Ismail Sultan Ibrahim being one of the two directors.

Then, in 2017, a 43 ha plot further south was cleared for a gold mine. And in June 2018, another company, Nadi Mesra Sdn Bhd, began felling a parcel of 2,125.17 ha (PTD 217) for oil palm. By August 2021, about 73% of this parcel has been logged bare.

More forest loss is imminent.

On 17 August, Nadi Mesra Sdn Bhd submitted an EIA report for a 2023.72 ha plantation project (at PTD 216) in the forest. This is their third submission for the project this year after two earlier ones were rejected.

In November, Nadi Mesra will file an EIA report for a separate 2245.3 ha plantation (at PTD 218), the EIA consultant involved told Macaranga.

A third proposal targets the gold veins that run under the forest. Southern Alliance Ltd, a Singapore-listed company, is partnering Sultan Ibrahim to mine gold there.

Southern Alliance and Nadi Mesra are helmed by the same person – Pek Kok Sam, a Malaysian.

Macaranga reached out to the stakeholders involved. AA Sawit did not respond to interview requests. Nadi Mesra declined to comment, citing possible reprimand from the “landowner” (i.e., Sultan Ibrahim) if they do so. 

Macaranga could not reach Sultan Ibrahim for comments. The Royal Press Office which handles the Johor sultan’s official communications did not respond to interview requests.

In the next three sections, we describe how logging, plantation, and mining projects in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh have and may affect the forests, animals and plants, the economy, and the community.

A 2,190 ha oil palm plantation developed by AA Sawit in part of the excised Jemaluang forest reserve, Johor. The remaining Jemaluang forest stretches south of the plantation. (Photo taken 12 September 2021 by IMR Kreatif)
A 2,190 ha oil palm plantation developed by AA Sawit in part of the excised Jemaluang forest reserve, Johor. The remaining Jemaluang forest stretches south of the plantation. (Photo taken 12 September 2021 by IMR Kreatif)


As more developers set upon the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests, one is prompted to ask if the gains outweigh the costs, and for whom?

The Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests are unique coastal dipterocarp and freshwater swamp forests, the Malaysian Nature Society tells Macaranga.

These forests “are very scarce in Peninsular Malaysia and mostly confined to the lowlands of the east coast.”

Such lowland coastal forests hold the highest biodiversity in Malaysia, says an ecologist who has been studying the region for two decades. He requests anonymity.

Because these forests are the easiest and most lucrative to log, Malaysia has very few of them left. “Johor still has quite a large patch and I feel that these are valuable and people should do more to protect them,” he says.

He adds that clearing the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests undermines the larger forest conservation efforts in Peninsular Malaysia.

The Malaysian federal government has been working to establish the Central Forest Spine – a contiguous forest landscape from northern to southern Peninsular Malaysia.

The Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests were part of the southern clusters. A ‘secondary linkage’ (SL4 in image below) would connect Jemaluang and Tenggaroh to the main forests, and animals would thrive in a far bigger habitat.

A linkage 'SL4' was planned to connect the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests to the larger forest network via the Central Forest Spine plan. (Diagram from The National Physical Plan 3, 2015)
A linkage 'SL4' was planned to connect the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests to the larger forest network via the Central Forest Spine plan. (Diagram from The National Physical Plan 3, 2015)

But the development in the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests casts doubts on these roles in the Central Forest Spine.

The EIA report for the oil palm plantation in PTD 216 (Tenggaroh) stated that “the naturally forested area is isolated and disjunct, making the forest corridor disjointed. It is fragmented by plantation and infrastructure development.”

The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources and the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia did not respond to questions on this secondary linkage.

State governments tend to develop forested land which they say are already degraded and provide little timber or ecological services.

EIA reports say forests were degraded

Were the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests degraded before they were excised?

Golden Ecosystems Sdn Bhd, the EIA consultant for AA Sawit and Nadi Mesra, thought so. In its EIA reports, the consultant wrote that the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests were “not a healthy, productive forest” because it was “difficult to find mature timber species with girth(s of) more than 30–40 cm”.

A sawmill owner in nearby Kota Tinggi agrees. He has been buying timber from AA Sawit and Nadi Mesra’s plots, and most of the logs had smaller than 30 cm diameters. He requests anonymity.

He adds however that he only bought cheaper varieties of timber. He does not know the sizes or quantity of more expensive timber like cengal, kapur, or meranti in the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests.

The Johor state forestry department did not respond to questions about this matter.

Ample time to be a rich forest

However, other evidence suggests that even if the forests were not rich, they were far from poor.

According to Google Earth satellite images, small pockets of the forests were logged between 1991–2012. But most of the forests showed no signs of disturbance in the three decades since 1984.

By 2014 – the year they were excised – these forests should have harboured adequate timber for a new round of sustainable logging, according to estimates used in Peninsular Malaysia’s forestry practices.

Another way to assess the quality of the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests is to compare them to nearby forest reserves.

Official inventories of plots in nearby forest reserves found 2–3 large trees per hectare in 2018. These plots were deemed productive and lucrative enough to be logged sustainably. 

Crested Fireback (Pic by Izereen Mukri/ Malayan Rainforest Station)
Crested Fireback (Pic by Izereen Mukri/ Malayan Rainforest Station)

Animals and Plants

While the available evidence diverges on the quality of timber in the forests, it is clear that the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests support rich biodiversity.

Hundreds of plants and animal species are found or expected to be found in these forests, according to EIA reports. These include large animals like elephants, tigers, sun bears, and tapirs.

Map of projects in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests, Johor

The EIA report listed 183 plant species in PTD 216 – the 2,024 ha plot which Nadi Mesra wants to turn into a plantation. The report described this collection as “merely” 2.2% of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia.

But that statement underestimates the importance of that figure. Compared to its size as a proportion (0.035%) of total forest land in the Peninsula, PTD 216 actually carries 63-times its expected load of plant species.

One interesting highlight in the EIA report is the conservation needs for the Meranti telopok (Shorea peltata) tree. The species is endangered in Malaysia and critically endangered worldwide.

In Peninsular Malaysia, this species was actually once thought extinct but was rediscovered in northeastern Johor. Most trees were found in the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests.

Since 2010, habitat loss all over northeastern Johor has halved the area in the state where Meranti telopok can be found, according to the Malaysia Red List (2021) by the Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM).

There have been reported efforts FRIM and the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia to establish areas of High Conservation Value Forest in Tenggaroh to protect Meranti telopok.

Neither FRIM nor the forestry department responded to questions on conservation in the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests.

Another point of note in the EIA report is that PTD 216 was also part of the Endau-Kota Tinggi Wildlife Reserve. But plantations and other developments had already fragmented the forests and “the area [had] ceased to function as [a wildlife reserve] effectively”.

The report concluded that converting the forest in PTD 216 into plantation is a “non-issue with respect to the status of wildlife reserve.”

In terms of actual species found in PTD 216, the 59 species of mammals reported constitute almost 20% of all mammal species recorded in Peninsular Malaysia. They include the Sunda pangolin and Asian elephant which are respectively Critically Endangered and Endangered.

These mammals and other animals would be killed or displaced if the forest is cleared.

However, the EIA report argues that “such impacts are buffered by the fact that there is very little wildlife left in the Project Area and that any species which might be affected are neither endemic nor rare and endangered.”

The Wildlife and National Parks Department of Peninsular Malaysia (PERHILITAN) did not respond to questions on the report’s assertions.

Trucks carrying logs in Mersing district, Johor, June 2020.
Trucks carrying logs in Mersing district, Johor, June 2020. (Pic by YH Law)


While the development in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh has destroyed ecosystems and habitats, has it delivered the economic benefits touted in the EIA reports?

This is critical in light of the upcoming developments that will destroy yet more ecosystems and biodiversity.

Map of projects in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests, Johor

Logs harvested from AA Sawit’s and Nadi Mesra’s plots in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests respectively have kept local sawmills running. Two sawmill operators in nearby Kota Tinggi told Macaranga that AA Sawit and Nadi Mesra have been the main suppliers of logs in recent years.

When loggers cannot log

Miss Teo is the secretary of Kemajuan Loong Seng Sdn Bhd, a logging and timber trading company in Kota Tinggi. They have been logging forest reserves in the area for about two decades with licenses from the Johor state forestry department.

However, the department has cut back on logging licenses for forest reserves. “Last year we weren’t allowed to log. It wasn’t just because of the pandemic. The government cancelled the licences,” says Teo.

“Even the [logging] quota that had been allotted was retracted. No compensation, just cancelled.”

When Kemajuan Loong Seng’s sister sawmill ran out of logs, “we had no choice but to buy from them [AA Sawit and Nadi Mesra].” And desperate buyers cannot bargain.

“That’s why log prices have been increasing – because supply has reduced.”

Can their business carry on? “Even if we could continue, it would be very hard because we don’t have our own plots to log,” she says. “We could only try to last as long as possible.”

If AA Sawit and Nadi Mesra had not been logging, “we would be badly affected,” says another sawmill operator who requested anonymity.

He concurs that the limited log supply has led to steadily rising prices. “Business is too challenging, and we had to shrink our operations, else we would be like having a large kitchen without rice to cook.” He claims to be running at one-third the capacity he used to two decades ago.

Macaranga reached out to the Johor state forestry department but they did not comment on the effects of logging in Jemaluang and Tenggaroh. They also did not explain why the logging quota in forest reserves was frozen.

However, Sultan Ibrahim had reportedly advised the forestry department in 2014 to freeze logging quotas in forest reserves. He also said he had since that year “surrendered” all his logging quotas in state forest reserves.

However, such state quota control does not restrict logging on private land. And logging on private land has overtaken that in forest reserves in the vicinity of Jemaluang.

So who has benefitted from the development of the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests so far?

Nadi Mesra who is developing PTD 217 has.

In the 12 months since it started logging that plot, it recorded RM 18.2 million in sales and RM 3.4 million in profit before tax in 2019, according to financial statements available through the Company Commission Malaysia.

It had been running losses the two years prior. A staff confirmed that the company has operations only in Jemaluang-Tenggaroh.

AA Sawit’s financial statements are not available through the Companies Commission of Malaysia.

Asian elephant (Photo by Izereen Mukri / Malayan Rainforest Station)
Asian elephant (Photo by Izereen Mukri / Malayan Rainforest Station)

The Community

He knew the elephants were about, but they had not caused trouble for a long while, so Su Chun Fa (transliteration) did not bother to install electric fences. “I was careless,” says the Jemaluang resident who has lived there for most of his 75 years.

Then, in 2016 or 2017 – “I don’t remember when. I was moody” – the elephants showed up and ate all the young oil palms in his estate.

Su abandoned his plot. “I am old, so I gave up…I’m just waiting to sell the land,” he says.

He recalls that two decades ago, the elephants “were not so fierce, but now they come in herds.” They eat oil palm, trample vegetable beds, and damage property.

Elephants have long been a part of the area’s history and landscape. But they “are our main issue now,” says Su.

Human-elephant conflicts are linked with the loss of the animal’s forest habitats, and the troubles in Jemaluang have coincided with the clearing of the Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests.

The hotspot of human-elephant conflict is along the main road running through Jemaluang town and alongside the forests.

The two forests harboured 20–30 elephants in 2018, according to PERHILITAN statistics cited by EIA reports. Elephants travel far in search of food, and in that landscape of plantations, farms, and villages interspersed between forests, they cannot avoid humans.

Encounters can be unpleasant, even fatal, for both elephants and humans. Elephants have been killed on the road or poisoned.

Managing the crisis in Peninsular Malaysia has cost the authorities more than RM22 million in the last decade. This sum paid for electrical fences to stop elephant intrusion into agricultural land; to capture and translocate elephants; and outreach programmes.

The interventions worked to a certain degree. Yearly elephant-related complaints in Johor dropped from over 400 to 70.

But human-elephant conflict persists. And in the Jemaluang-Tenggaroh area, already a hotspot for such troubles, future conversion of forests into plantations will force humans and elephants into ever closer contact.

Serene and clean Jemaluang

Despite the elephant concerns, Jemaluang residents seem to enjoy life in town. Most of the residents are above 50 years old, and they have seen their town change.

A good number can recall a Jemaluang bustling with loggers and tin miners in the 1960s and 1970s. The place is now a backwater, which seems to suit the seniors there.

“This is a great place to retire. The air is good,” says Su, the 75-year old who lost his oil palm to elephants. Like many others in the community to whom Macaranga spoke, his main frustration is with the elephants.

Government officers “would come and check if we report [elephant disturbance], but nothing comes out of it. There’s no compensation, nothing. Nobody’s responsible,” he claims.

Is he upset with the forest loss around town? “We don’t care much because we are already old…we just live out our twilight years here.” He also believes that the projects are run by the state government and non-negotiable.

State of private projects?

Most of the residents apparently share the sentiment that little can be done to save the forests. A survey of 183 Jemaluang residents in 2020 by the EIA consultant for the PTD 216 plantation showed that almost all expected logging and oil palm plantations to damage the environment and aggravate wildlife conflict.

Yet only 19% disagreed with that development. About 63% of respondents sat on the fence, mainly because they thought it was a state government project.

In actual fact, all the current and future projects – logging, oil palm, gold mining in the excised Jemaluang and Tenggaroh forests are private projects on private land.

With more projects in the pipeline, Jemaluang residents can expect to answer more surveys. With every survey, they can also expect more changes to their environments and their businesses.

It remains to be seen, in a decade’s time, if Su’s children would like to retire in Jemaluang too. 


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Budaya Main Peranan Penting dalam Menyelamatkan Kuda Laut

Kuda laut yang menakjubkan boleh menjadi ikon pemuliharaan laut dan perubahan iklim. Bagi menarik minat rakyat Malaysia, seorang penyelidik mengkaji kepelbagaian budaya yang diamalkan. Diterjemahkan oleh Hanna binti Norhisam.

[Read story in English | 点击阅读中文版]

SETIAP KALI ahli pemuliharaan Reana Ng masuk ke kedai perubatan tradisional Cina (PTC), beliau akan dipandang aneh, katanya dengan ironi. “Mereka tahu anda tidak datang untuk membeli ubat tradisional… Mengapa sebenarnya anda datang ke sini?”

Tanpa menghiraukan pandangan mereka, Ng terus mengunjungi kedai-kedai sebegini. Sejak Mac lalu, pelajar Ijazah Sarjana ini telah mengumpul maklumat mengenai kepelbagaian penggunaan kuda laut dan bagaimana rakyat di Semenanjung Malaysia menggunakannya.

(Gambar: Kuda laut kering digunakan dalam Perubatan Tradisional Cina selama berabad-abad  | Foto: Reana Ng)


拯救海马, 不离文化


[Read story in English | Baca artikel dalam Bahasa Malaysia]

环保主义者黄美燕(Reana Ng)透露,每当自己走进中药店,就会被店员看穿。她自我调侃地说道:“他们就是知道你不是来买药材的…然后他们会接着问,你来这里做什么?”


(图片:干海马在传统中药里的使用经有几个世纪的历史 | 黄美燕)


To Save Seahorses, Culture Matters

[Updated 26 August 2021] The fascinating seahorse can be a marine conservation and climate change icon. To get Malaysians on board, a researcher looks at cultural practices.

[Versi Bahasa Malaysia | 点击阅读中文版]


WHENEVER conservationist Reana Ng walks into a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) shop, she gets a “look”, she says wryly. “They just know that you’re not coming in to buy traditional medicine…Why are you here?”

Undeterred, Ng continues to visit these shops. Since March, this Masters student has been gathering information on the many uses of seahorses and on how people in Peninsular Malaysia use them.

(Photo: Dried seahorses have been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for centuries | Image by Reana Ng)


法祖尔 — 曼塔纳尼岛的潜水长新生代

曼塔纳尼岛民莫赫德·法祖尔·本·马达利(Mohd Faizul bin Madali)终日无所事事,就等着疫情过去后游客们回来。他是一名潜水长,2020年3月封锁令之后一直没有工作,只能靠家人接济。




当被问及他们是否使用炸鱼弹时,他马上回答道:“不不不!不再用了。”他坚持认为,即使岛屿周围有炸鱼活动,那肇事者也是“外面的人,可能来自(沙巴大陆上的)亚庇(Kota Kinabalu)”。



Faizul (second from right) joins other Reef Check Malaysia divers to “plant” new corals on a Mantanani reef destroyed by fish-bombing (Image: Adzmin Fatta / Reef Check Malaysia)
法祖尔(右二)与马来西亚珊瑚礁检查组织的潜水员一起在被炸鱼破坏的曼塔纳尼珊瑚礁上“种植”新的珊瑚。图片来源 :Adzmin Fatta / Reef Check Malaysia





本文由Macaranga与中外对话China Dialogue Ocean合作完成。

Faizul — Mantanani’s Divemaster Generation

MANTANANI native Mohd Faizul bin Madali is twiddling his thumbs waiting for the pandemic to end and tourists to return.

He is a divemaster and has been without work since lockdowns began in March 2020, relying instead on his family to support him.

“Previously, my life was diving, eating, sleeping,” says the 22-year-old. “Now, it’s eating, sleeping, eating, sleeping.”

He says virtually everyone in his village of 100 people has been dependent on tourism. The same is true of the other, larger village on Mantanani, the only inhabited island of a small group off Sabah’s northwest coast.

Back to fishing

With tourists still unable to visit, many islanders have returned to fishing as a way to make a living. As Faizul remarks, there are very few alternatives: “Where else are we going to get an income if not from the sea?”

When asked if they use fish bombs, he is quick to respond: “No, no, no! Not any more.” If fish-bombing is taking place around the islands, he is adamant the perpetrators are “outsiders, maybe from Kota Kinabalu [on the mainland]”.

Faizul has reported to the authorities the intrusion of non-local fishing boats during lockdown, incensed that they used nets in shallow waters, destroying the coral.

“I felt sad because the coral used to be alive, but they killed it. Thank goodness there are laws [to tackle this]… Tourism also depends on corals being beautiful and healthy. Who wants to look at dead corals? And Chinese tourists are very particular!”

Faizul (second from right) joins other Reef Check Malaysia divers to “plant” new corals on a Mantanani reef destroyed by fish-bombing (Image: Adzmin Fatta / Reef Check Malaysia)
Faizul (second from right) joins other Reef Check Malaysia divers to “plant” new corals on a Mantanani reef destroyed by fish-bombing (All images: Adzmin Fatta / Reef Check Malaysia)

A certified “eco-diver”, Faizul is also part of Reef Check Malaysia’s Mantanani Youth Club, a capacity-building conservation initiative, and takes an active part in the NGO’s reef surveys.

Unlike other islanders, however, he has not turned to fishing to make ends meet: “How would I know how to do that? What I can do is bring people diving and teach them how to dive.”


This Insight is a collaboration with China Dialogue Ocean.

Forest-use: The Public Wants A Say


Juggling between development and environmental conservation is difficult when it comes to forest-use. But there are ways to be more inclusive. This is Part 4 of Forest Files.

MALAYSIA has had decades of continuous economic and population growth since independence.

In 2019, the country achieved a gross domestic production (GDP) of about RM1.5 trillion, more than a hundred-times the GDP in the 1960s. The population almost quadrupled over the same period.

However, before Malaysia industrialised in the 1980s, it exploited its natural resources, including its most accessible at that time: primary forests, some of the oldest in the world.

(Public participation allows citizens affected by forest-use change to voice out; pictured at the North Kuala Langat Forest Reserve degazettement townhall are [clockwise from top] Kg OA Pulau Kempas’s Tonjoi Bin Pipis and Batin Raman Pahat, and Kg OA Busut Baru’s Rosnah Anak Senin. Pics by Shakila Zen/KUASA)


Revenue and Power Drive Forest Area Changes


To understand forest-use dynamics in Peninsular Malaysia, one must know how state governments – the sole authority on land use – perceive forests. This is Part 3 of Forest Files.

IN AUGUST 2019, when then Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad launched a forestry exhibition in Kuala Lumpur, he took the audience down memory lane.

“At the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, as the Prime Minister of Malaysia back then, I made a pledge that Malaysia is committed to maintain at least 50 percent of our land mass under forest cover,” said Mahathir.

(Photo: Logs, like these harvested from a permanent reserve forest in Johor, are an important source of revenue for many state governments. Pic by YH Law.)