Nota berkaitan Peta Kawasan Perlindungan Marin Malaysia

Berikut adalah nota berkaitan peta kawasan perlindungan pantai dan marin Malaysia yang disertakan dalam laporan kami Seribu Satu Cara Melindungi Lautan.

SUMBER RUJUKAN PETA

 1. Peta ini menunjukkan kawasan perlindungan marin dan pantai yang ditetapkan oleh pelbagai undang-undang Malaysia yang berkaitan pemuliharaan dan pengurusan sumber.

2. Senarai kawasan perlindungan kebanyakannya diambil daripada senarai kawasan perlindungan marin dan pantai di Enhancing Uptake of Nature-Based Solutions for Informing Coastal Sustainable Development Policy and Planning: A Malaysia Case Study (Chee et al., 2021). Kesemua kawasan ini terletak di dalam laut atau kawasan pedalaman 5 km dari pantai Malaysia. Senarai juga disemak silang dan dikemas kini dari sumber-sumber berikut:

Kategori Data

Sumber Maklumat

Peninsular Malaysia and Labuan Marine Parks

Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DOFM)

Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak Fisheries Prohibited Areas

DOFM

Kedah Sea Cucumber Protection Area

DOFM

Peninsular Malaysia Turtle Sanctuaries

Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA)

Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS)

Peninsular Malaysia State Parks

WDPA

Peninsular Malaysia National Parks

WDPA

Penang Government Gazette, 10 April 2003

Peninsular Malaysia mangroves, Forest Reserves and Wildlife Reserves

WDPA

Department of Environment’s geospatial data repository (mangrove forests only)

Sabah State Parks

Sabah Parks

MyBIS

Sabah Marine Conservation Area

WDPA

Sabah Forest Reserves

MyBIS

Sarawak State Parks, Nature Reserves and Wildlife Sanctuaries

Sarawak Forestry Corporation

 

Selain daripada Taman Negara Pulau Pinang, ‘taman negara’ yang lain tidak diwartakan bawah undang-undang persekutuan.

3. Poligon dan titik: Data perbatasan dari World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) digunakan untuk menandakan kawasan perlindungan dalam bentuk poligon. Apabila tiada data perbatasan, poligon direka menggunakan warta kerajaan (contohnya taman marin yang disenaraikan pada 2023). Dalam situasi lain, kawasan ditandakan sebagai titik tunggal (contohnya Hutan Simpan Pulau Perepat).

4. ‘Reported Marine Area’ dan ‘Reported Total Area’ dirumuskan daripada laman web Sarawak Forestry Corporation, Sabah Parks, MyBIS, warta kerajaan, DOFM atau berpandukan maklumat yang diserahkan oleh DOFM kepada Macaranga. Sumber setiap data dinamakan di ruangan ‘Remark.’ Jika tak disebutkan, saiz kawasan adalah seperti dalam rekod WDPA.

5. Untuk kawasan hutan bakau Semenanjung Malaysia, ‘Reported Area’ adalah seperti dilaporkan di fail geospatial Jabatan Alam Sekitar.

 

TAKRIF ISTILAH

Jadual 1: Takrifan setiap ruangan data di peta

Ruangan Data

Takrifan

Name

Nama kawasan perlindungan, kecuali kawasan bakau Semenanjung Malaysia, di mana nama negeri disenaraikan.

Designation

Nama rasmi tapak, menurut warta.

Designation Year

Tahun penyenaraian rasmi berkuatkuasa setelah diwartakan.

IUCN Category

Kategori Pengurusan Kawasan Perlindungan IUCN (IUCN Protected Area Management Category) berpandukan rekod WDPA. Rujuk kepada Jadual 2 untuk takrifan setiap kategori.

Reported Marine Area (sqkm)

Luas kawasan perlindungan yang dirangkumi persekitaran marin, dalam kilometer persegi.

Reported Total Area (sqkm)

Kawasan perlindungan keseluruhan, termasuk marin, air tawar dan daratan, dalam kilometer persegi. Nilai ini akan selalu lebih besar daripada atau bersamaan dengan nilai di ruangan ‘Reported Marine Area‘.

Governance type

Pihak dipertanggungjawabkan ke atas sebarang keputusan berkaitan pengurusan kawasan perlindungan.

Management Authority

Agensi, organisasi, individu atau kumpulan yang menguruskan kawasan perlindungan. Ini berbeza daripada jenis tadbir urus yang berkaitan dengan pihak yang bertanggungjawab untuk menentukan kegiatan pihak pengurusan. Jenis tadbir urus dan pihak pengurusan tak semestinya berpadanan.

Remark

Nota berkaitan tapak/data di ruangan.

Reported Area (sqm)

[Hutan bakau Semenanjung Malaysia sahaja]

Keluasan, dalam meter persegi.

Jadual 2: Takrifan Kategori Pengurusan Kawasan Perlindungan IUCN ( IUCN Protected Area Management Categories)

Sumber: Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas (IUCN, 2019).

Kategori

Takrifan

Ia

Strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/ geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.

Ib

Usually large, unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

II

Large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities.

III

Set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine caverns, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value.

IV

Aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement of the category.

V

Where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values.

VI

Category VI protected areas conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low level non industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area.

Disunting oleh SL Wong | Diterjemah oleh Adriana Nordin Manan

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Rujukan:

Chee, SY., et al. (2021) Enhancing Uptake of Nature-Based Solutions for Informing Coastal Sustainable Development Policy and Planning: A Malaysia Case Study. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9:708507.

Day, J., et al. (eds.) (2019). Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas. Second edition. Gland. Switzerland: IUCN.

Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Official Portal. 2023.

Sabah Parks. Official Portal.

Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Totally Protected Areas. 2023.

UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2023) Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), September 2023, Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.

 

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