马来西亚海洋保护区分布图注释

以下是一些于马来西亚海岸及海洋保护区分布图有关的详情。想了解更多,请参阅守护海洋的八万四千个法门这篇文章。

这是马来西亚海岸及海洋保护区分布图的注释,地图源自守护海洋的八万四千个法门一文。

地图资料来源

  1. 地图所显示的海岸及海洋保护区,都是依据马来西亚各种保育及资源管理的法律条例成立。

2. 此表列出的保护区主要源自Enhancing Uptake of Nature-Based Solutions for Informing Coastal Sustainable Development Policy and Planning: A Malaysia Case Study” (Chee et al., 2021) 一文。这些保护区位于海洋,或离马来西亚海岸5公里内的内陆地区。此列表与下列来源查证对比后更新。

资料类别

资料来源

Peninsular Malaysia and Labuan Marine Parks

Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DOFM)

Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak Fisheries Prohibited Areas

DOFM

Kedah Sea Cucumber Protection Area

DOFM

Peninsular Malaysia Turtle Sanctuaries

Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA)

Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS)

Peninsular Malaysia State Parks

WDPA

Peninsular Malaysia National Parks

WDPA

Penang Government Gazette, 10 April 2003

Peninsular Malaysia mangroves, Forest Reserves and Wildlife Reserves

WDPA

Department of Environment’s geospatial data repository (mangrove forests only)

Sabah State Parks

Sabah Parks

MyBIS

Sabah Marine Conservation Area

WDPA

Sabah Forest Reserves

MyBIS

Sarawak State Parks, Nature Reserves and Wildlife Sanctuaries

Sarawak Forestry Corporation

 

除了槟城国家公园,其余“国家公园”都在联邦法律宪报。

3.  标示用的多边形与点标:世界保护区数据库(WDPA)里的边界资料,将保护区显示为多边形。当没有边界资料时,这些多边形就会根据政府宪报划分(例如,2023年的海洋公园)。否则,这些地区都会用点标示出来(例如,柏勒峇岛(Pulau Perepat)自然保护区)。

4. “呈报海洋区域”(Reported Marine Area)和“呈报总区域”(Reported Total Area)的资料,源自砂拉越林业企业(Sarawak Forestry Corporation)、沙巴公园(Sabah Parks)、马来西亚生物多样性信息系统(MyBIS)、政府宪报及国家渔业局的网站,其中也有国家渔业局提供本刊的资料。所有资料来源都写在备注(Remark)一栏。若无,地区面积将参照世界保护区数据库里的数据。

5. 马来西亚半岛红树林的“呈报区域”(Reported Area)源自环境局的地理空间数据文件。

用词定义

表一:地图上每笔栏目资料的定义

栏目资料

定义

Name

保护区名称。马来西亚半岛红树林除外,只会写上州属名称。

Designation

保护区在宪报上的官方名称。

Designation Year

保护区宪报后的生效年份。

IUCN Category

据WDPA纪录的IUCN保护区管理类别。类别定义请见表二。

Reported Marine Area (sqkm)

保护区所占的海域面积,以平方公里计。

Reported Total Area (sqkm)

保护区总面积,当中包括海水、淡水及陆地面积,以平方公里计。此面积将与Reported Marine Area的数字相同或更大。

Governance type

负责管理保护区的决策权单位。

Management Authority

负责管理保护区的机构、组织、个人或小组。治理类型负责决定管理机构所能进行的活动。两者未必是同一单位。

Remark

其他备注事项。

Reported Area (sqm)

[Peninsular Malaysia’s mangrove forests only]

区域,以平方米计的面积。

表二:国际保护自然联盟对保护区管理分类的定义

来源:Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas (IUCN, 2019).

Category

Definition

Ia

Strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/ geomorphological features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring.

Ib

Usually large, unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence, without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition.

II

Large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large scale ecological processes, along with the complement of species and ecosystems characteristic of the area, which also provide a foundation for environmentally and culturally compatible spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities.

III

Set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine caverns, geological feature such as a cave or even a living feature such as an ancient grove. They are generally quite small protected areas and often have high visitor value.

IV

Aim to protect particular species or habitats and management reflects this priority. Many category IV protected areas will need regular, active interventions to address the requirements of particular species or to maintain habitats, but this is not a requirement of the category.

V

Where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant ecological, biological, cultural and scenic value: and where safeguarding the integrity of this interaction is vital to protecting and sustaining the area and its associated nature conservation and other values.

VI

Category VI protected areas conserve ecosystems and habitats together with associated cultural values and traditional natural resource management systems. They are generally large, with most of the area in natural condition, where a proportion is under sustainable natural resource management and where low level non industrial use of natural resources compatible with nature conservation is seen as one of the main aims of the area.

原文编辑:黄秀铃  | 翻译:万绮珊

有问题和意见吗? 请给我们发电子邮件: editorial@macaranga.org。

参考:

Chee, SY., et al. (2021) Enhancing Uptake of Nature-Based Solutions for Informing Coastal Sustainable Development Policy and Planning: A Malaysia Case Study. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 9:708507.

Day, J., et al. (eds.) (2019). Guidelines for applying the IUCN protected area management categories to marine protected areas. Second edition. Gland. Switzerland: IUCN.

Department of Fisheries Malaysia. Official Portal. 2023.

Sabah Parks. Official Portal.

Sarawak Forestry Corporation. Totally Protected Areas. 2023.

UNEP-WCMC and IUCN (2023) Protected Planet: The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA), September 2023, Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN.

 

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